, The Bolsheviks triumphed in the Civil War because of Trotsky's ability to work with military specialists, because of the style of work he introduced where widescale consultation was followed through by swift and determined action. Léon Trotski, de son vrai nom Lev Davidovitch Bronstein, né le 26 octobre 1879 à Ianovka et mort assassiné le 21 août 1940 à Mexico, est un révolutionnaire communiste et homme politique russo-soviétique. Puoi scoprire di piÃ¹ su quali cookie stiamo utilizzando o disattivarli nella sezione Cookies PolicyÂ del nostro sito. Rudé gardy, ozbrojené dělnické milice, ze kterých byla posléze vytvořena Rudá armáda, pod Trockého velením obsadily mosty přes Něvu, Baltské nádraží, vládní budovy a všechny opěrné body města. Trotsky wrote in My Life that he "was taking a rest from politics" and "naturally plunged into the new line of work up to my ears". Dunque non ci sono motivi che giustifichino lâesistenza separata delle due organizzazioni.â (E. H. Carr, La rivoluzione bolscevica, citato in A. In 1927, Stalin started using the GPU (Soviet secret police) to infiltrate and discredit the opposition. These ideological divisions provided much of the intellectual basis for the political divide between Trotsky and the Left Opposition on the one hand and Stalin and his allies on the other. Trockij szerepe az elkövetkező októberi forradalomban ismert és Le Blanc helyesen írja le ezt. , With the help of his deputy Ephraim Sklyansky, Trotsky spent the rest of the Civil War transforming the Red Army from a ragtag network of small and fiercely independent detachments into a large and disciplined military machine, through forced conscription, party-controlled blocking squads, compulsory obedience and officers chosen by the leadership instead of the rank and file. In response to Fanya Kaplan's failed assassination of Lenin on 30 August 1918, and to the successful assassination of the Petrograd Cheka chief Moisei Uritsky on 17 August 1918, the Bolsheviks instructed Felix Dzerzhinsky to commence a Red Terror, announced in the 1 September 1918 issue of the Krasnaya Gazeta (Red Gazette). Lenin avrebbe voluto che Trockij entrasse a far parte della redazione, ma la sua proposta trovò l'unica ma decisiva opposizione di Plechanov, che provò subito per il giovane collaboratore una forte antipatia che divenne presto una radicale avversione. Hearing the commotion, Trotsky's bodyguards burst into the room and nearly beat Mercader to death, but Trotsky stopped them, laboriously stating that the assassin should be made to answer questions. Tuttavia, Trotskij si sbagliava. The methods used by the Stalinists against the Opposition became more and more extreme. Stalin presented Mercader with an Order of Lenin in absentia. In time of reaction it is more convenient to lean on the bureaucracy than on the truth. In MayâJune 1918, the Czechoslovak Legions en route from European Russia to Vladivostok rose against the Soviet government. , The military situation soon tested Trotsky's managerial and organization-building skills. Trotsky later speculated that it may have been due to Kamenev's love of comfort, which Trotsky found "repelled me." Ã morta. Lâerrore teorico fondamentale dei menscevichi era pensare che la lotta rivoluzionaria sarebbe stata guidata dalla borghesia russa, come giÃ era successo in altri paesi nel passato, e che il compito del proletariato sarebbe stato quello di appoggiare la suddetta borghesia. At the XIIth Party Congress in April 1923, however, just after Lenin's final stroke, Trotsky did not raise the issue. He put Trotsky in charge of the country's railroads (while retaining overall control of the Red Army), which he directed should be militarized in the spirit of War Communism. Registrati sul nostro sito web hamfestitalia.it e scarica il libro di Il «Corriere» tra Stalin e Trockij 1926-1929 e altri libri dell'autore Richiesta inoltrata al Negozio assolutamente gratis! The alleged members of the anti-Stalin bloc were Zinovievites, rightists and Trotskyists who "capitulated" to Stalin. Ecco perché, nel tardo pomeriggio di un giorno di agosto, Trockij ��� terminato di dare da mangiare ai conigli e alle galline ��� invita Jacson-Mercader nel suo studio. Jukums VÄcietis), who had formerly led the Eastern Front against the Czechoslovak Legions. The opposition remained united against Stalin throughout 1926 and 1927, especially on the issue of the Chinese Revolution. di Lejba Bron邸tein) Rivoluzionario e politico russo (Janovka, Cherson, 1879-Coyoacán, Città di Messico, 1940). Il «Corriere» tra Stalin e Trockij 1926-1929 PDF online - Facile! Quella rivoluzione che aveva abbattuto lo zarismo aveva dimostrato che non câera alcuna ragione oggettiva per la quale la classe operaia non potesse prendere il potere. The fascist burglars targeted Trotsky's works and archives for vandalism. et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Representative Martin Dies, chairman of the committee, demanded the suppression of the American Communist Party. Trotskij ribatteva che in tutto il corso della storia i contadini non avevano mai giocato un ruolo indipendente. Many commentators speculated after the fact that Trotsky's absence from Moscow in the days following Lenin's death contributed to his eventual loss to Stalin, although Trotsky generally discounted the significance of his absence. On his way, he learned about Lenin's death on 21 January 1924. In ogni istante, subito dopo il suo primo discorso al Soviet, lo consideravamo tutti come uno dei nostri dirigenti del partito.â (citato in A. Thus, the accomplishment of bourgeois democratic tasks passes over into proletarian tasks. Lenin decided that since it was more important to defend Moscow, Petrograd would have to be abandoned.  Trotsky's 14-year-old grandson, Vsevolod Platonovich "Esteban" Volkov (born 7 March 1926), was shot in the foot. Kamenev and Zinoviev were also alleged members of the bloc. We have no other bricks! , Trotsky and the government responded with a full-fledged mobilisation, which increased the size of the Red Army from fewer than 300,000 in May 1918 to one million in October, and an introduction of political commissars into the army. The "comrade-deserters" were looking at me with such curiosity that it seemed as if their eyes would pop out of their heads.  His final move was a few blocks away to a residence on Avenida Viena in April 1939, following a break with Rivera. On 26 August 1936, eight policemen arrived at Knudsen's house demanding that Trotsky sign new conditions for residing in Norway. Trotsky's alleged distortion of the events of 1917 in order to emphasise his role and diminish the roles played by other Bolsheviks. Zdroj: Wikimedia Commons, Grigorij Goldstein, volné dílo . New York: HarperCollins. The adze of the axe wounded Trotsky, fracturing his parietal bone and penetrating 7 cm (2.8 in) into his brain. Come piÃ¹ volte accaduto nella storia del marxismo, Ã¨ nel fuoco degli avvenimenti che le teorie verificano la loro validitÃ e la prova decisiva Ã¨ rappresentata dalla rivoluzione, un passaggio storico in cui il movimento rivoluzionario viene sottoposto a formidabili pressioni contrapposte, da una parte della propria classe, dallâaltra dalle classi avverse. The alliance proved effective on the issue of foreign trade[g] but was hindered by Lenin's progressing illness. Lâindipendenza del movimento operaio nei confronti della borghesia âliberaleâ era dunque una questione di principio per i due marxisti.  The following day Trotsky was interrogated by the police about his political activities, with the police officially citing Trotsky as a "witness" to the fascist raid of 5 August 1936.. Lenin se prý snažil o připojení se k menševikům a chtěl prý provésti odstranění teroru“ . , The Moscow trials are perpetuated under the banner of socialism. Ð. Příčina této události spočívá prý v různosti názorů o bolševických reformách. They were genuinely enthusiastic; they followed me to the automobile, devoured me with their eyes, not fearfully, as before, but rapturously, and shouted at the tops of their voices. The change was prompted by the need to allocate manpower quickly during the Civil War as well as by the transformation of the party from a small group of revolutionaries into the country's ruling party, with a corresponding increase in membership. Numerous Fourth Internationalist groups around the world continue to describe themselves as Trotskyists and see themselves as standing in this tradition. Witnesses stated that Trotsky spat on Mercader and began struggling fiercely with him, which resulted in Mercader's hand being broken. Their criticism of Trotsky was concentrated in three areas: Trotsky was again sick and unable to respond while his opponents mobilised all of their resources to denounce him. But everything went off beautifully. Manuale Il giovane Lenin è una delle opere di Lev Trockij, una biografia di Lenin pubblicata nel 1936. pubblicata nel 1936. , In May 1935, soon after the French government had agreed the Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance with the Soviet Union government, Trotsky was officially told that he was no longer welcome in France. The rest of the recently expanded Politburo (Rykov, Mikhail Tomsky, Bukharin) was at first uncommitted, but eventually joined the troika. 6, pagg 34-35). La seconda puntata della serie di articoli sulla Rivoluzione d’Ottobre, che saranno pubblicati lungo tutto il 2017 su Rivoluzione. Negli anni precedenti, difficili, della Prima guerra mondiale, Lenin e Trotskij avevano portato avanti una posizione internazionalista che aveva ampi tratti comuni, espressa nelle conferenze di Zimmerwald (1915) e Kienthal (1916), all’insegna dell’intransigenza rivoluzionaria. [...] free discussion within the party has virtually disappeared, party public opinion has been stifled. Nellâopinione di Lenin, tale vaghezza non era casuale. Bureaucratic methods and orders from above cannot achieve this." Those who opposed the Central Committee's position in the debate were thereafter referred to as members of the Left Opposition. On 5 August 1936, Knudsen's house was burgled by fascists from the Nasjonal Samling while Trotsky and his wife were out on a seashore trip with Knudsen and his wife. Comrade Trotsky has come to speak to you." ÐÐ¾ÑÐµ. CiÃ² significa che ogni volta che visiti questo sito web dovrai abilitare o disabilitare nuovamente i cookie. In early 1926, Zinoviev, Kamenev and their supporters in the "New Opposition" gravitated closer to Trotsky's supporters, and the two groups soon formed an alliance, which also incorporated some smaller opposition groups within the Communist Party.  In mid-July 1922, Kamenev wrote a letter to the recovering Lenin to the effect that "(the Central Committee) is throwing or is ready to throw a good cannon overboard". Segui anche www.marxismo.net per ulteriori approfondimenti. Historian Pierre BrouÃ© concluded that the bloc dissolved in early 1933, since some of its members like Zinoviev and Kamenev joined Stalin again, and because there were no letters in the Trotsky Harvard archive mentioning the bloc after 1932. Many of his supporters argued against his appearance. His view did not focus on State control as much as the concern that a new relationship was needed between the State and the rank-and-file workers. Clearly, the Party is always right... We can only be right with and by the Party, for history has provided no other way of being in the right. L'attività svolta dal Tr. Trotskij in quello stesso congresso viene eletto nel Comitato centrale del partito ed Ã¨ uno dei quattro candidati (insieme a Lenin, Zinovâev e Kamenev) a ricevere il maggior numero di voti, 131 su 134. " Mercader was tried and convicted of the murder and spent the next 20 years in a Mexican prison. The trade unions. , Immediately after the Conference, Trotsky left for a Caucasian resort to recover from his prolonged illness. La propaganda di matrice stalinista, con il contributo di alcuni storici scarsamente documentati, ama ritrarre un Trotskij âmenscevicoâ fino al 1917, protagonista di furibondi scontri quotidiani con Lenin. Trotskij lo ha compreso, e da quel momento non câÃ¨ stato bolscevico miglioreâ. I had imagined them much worse, and they had imagined me as more terrible. E tutti i tentativi di farla rivivere saranno vaniâ. E Lenin è colpito dall���elaborazione di Gramsci quando considera l���articolo ���Per un rinnovamento del Partito Socialista���, apparso sull���Ordine Nuovo dell���8 maggio 1920, come un attacco, dal punto di vista della rivoluzione mondiale, al As part of this effort, on 11 September 1922 Lenin proposed that Trotsky become his deputy at the Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom). Throughout late 1918 and early 1919, there were a number of attacks on Trotsky's leadership of the Red Army, including veiled accusations in newspaper articles inspired by Stalin and a direct attack by the Military Opposition at the VIIIth Party Congress in March 1919. Nellâaprile del 1917 Lenin si esprime con estrema chiarezza riguardo allo slogan adottato dal Partito fino a quel momento: âChiunque parli oggi di una âdittatura democratica-rivoluzionaria del proletariato e dei contadiniâ Ã¨ rimasto indietro nel tempo ed Ã¨ di conseguenza passato dalla parte della piccola borghesia, contro la lotta della classe proletaria. Vatsetis took charge of the day-to-day operations of the army. In February 1929, Trotsky was deported from the Soviet Union to his new exile in Turkey. Konfliktusa Sztálinnal - akit nemes egyszerűséggel csak `pártunk legkiemelkedőbb középszerűségének` titulált - még Lenin életében kirobbant. Mentre il pensiero di Stalin è completamente differente dal pensiero di Lenin di Trockij. It was not until early 1921, due to economic collapse and social uprisings, that Lenin and the rest of the Bolshevik leadership abandoned War Communism in favor of the New Economic Policy. Tanto che Lenin, dopo lâOttobre poteva affermare: âSulla questione della guerra i mezrajontsi assunsero una posizione internazionalista e la loro tattica era vicina a quella bolscevica.â (V. I. Lenin, Opere complete, vol. With only the Leningrad Party organization behind them, Zinoviev and Kamenev, dubbed The New Opposition, were thoroughly defeated while Trotsky refused to get involved in the fight and did not speak at the Congress.  Following the failed assassination attempt, Trotsky wrote an article titled "Stalin Seeks My Death" on 8 June 1940, in which he stated that another assassination attempt was certain.
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